Physical inactivity is the fourth-highest risk factor for worldwide mortality, accounting for 6% of global mortality.
Do not make the mistake of thinking that sedentary behavior is only due to a lack of moderate to robust physical activity.
Sedentary lifestyles are associated with harmful health consequences.
It is a particular class of behaviors, such as sitting, watching TV, and driving, described by little physical movement and low energy expenditure.
Poor physical activity participation is assumed to be affected by numerous factors. Some environmental characteristics are traffic congestion, air pollution, lack of parks or pedestrian walkways, and sports or leisure establishments. Television and video viewing and phone usage positively correlate with an increasingly inactive lifestyle. Sedentary behaviors may continue to grow based on this socio-cultural background.
What are the health implications of sedentary behavior? There are many established harmful effects of a sedentary lifestyle. There is an association between an increased risk of chronic diseases and physical inactivity.
Poor cardiorespiratory fitness has associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Another established damaging effect of sedentary behavior is metabolic dysfunction.
Metabolic syndrome is a multifaceted condition characterized by obesity, decreased insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and cancer.
Understanding the consequences of a sedentary lifestyle is enough motivation to become more physically active. You need to know the health benefit of exercise.
The best way to start your exercise or fitness program is to get a qualified fitness trainer who will prescribe the best workout. Your fitness level and fitness goal determine the prescription, and your trainer will measure your fitness level by putting you through an exercise or fitness test.
WHAT IS YOUR FITNESS LEVEL? Your fitness or exercise program can be aerobic or anaerobic, or even both. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two kinds of exercise that vary based on the assertiveness, interval, and types of muscle fibers included.
According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), aerobic exercise, also called cardio, is rhythmic and can be maintained continuously. You can define aerobic exercise as any movement that utilizes large muscle groups which rely on aerobic metabolism to produce energy.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy from carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids.
Examples of aerobic exercise are; cycling, dance aerobics, hiking, jogging, swimming, and brisk or casual walking.
ACSM defines anaerobic exercise as an intense physical activity within a short time. Anaerobic exercise requires energy within the contracting muscles and is independent of inhaled oxygen. Without oxygen, your cells revert to ATP formation through glycolysis and fermentation.
Examples of anaerobic exercise are sprinting, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and power-lifting. These consist of fast-twitch muscles.
Aerobic exercises can become anaerobic exercises when you perform at very high intensity.
Aerobic exercise programs must be straightforward, practical, and realistic. Only a fitness trainer can detect the best workout after your fitness test. The test helps detect and prevent health complications that could arise from exercise.
Exercise testing; An exercise test, also called a stress test conducted by a professional to determine your heart capacity and response to the most challenging work.
An exercise stress test tells if your heart receives sufficient oxygen and blood when needed the most during exercise. It shows your health level, especially when starting a new training program. It allows your trainer to know the fitness level you can safely tolerate.
How is an exercise stress test done? Before the test, you will undergo a physical examination, and your trainer will consider your entire medical history.
The test usually happens on a treadmill. You will start with slow walks on a treadmill. The speed and inclination of the treadmill get increase during the trail. Your trainer will stop you if you complain of difficulty breathing, chest pains, or weakness.
When your trainer is pleased with your outcomes, you will stop exercising. Exercise test performance requires the three responses measurement during inspiration and expiration:
Oxygen (O2) concentration
Carbon vi oxide (CO2) concentration, and
Ventilation quantification (tidal volume and respiratory rate)
Using exercise tests to Prescribe Exercise or Fitness training The exercise prescription is a personalized fitness plan given to a person like a medication prescription. There are four essential components of exercise prescription. The component is known as FITT principles, modified recently to FITT-VP.
The principles of exercise prescription are;
Frequency (how often)
Intensity (how hard)
Time (duration or how long)
Type (mode or what kind of exercise)
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends these FITT - VP approaches for cardiovascular exercise. According to ACSM, aerobic exercise 3-5 times per week, 65%-85% of maximal heart rate as intensity, and 20-60 minutes duration per session are effective.
The optimal exercise prescription must address the health-related physical fitness components and make you achieve your fitness goal. You can facilitate the fitness journey with quality nutrition.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FITNESS AND NUTRITION.
Because fitness works hand in hand with nutrition, thus the term nutritional fitness means that food enhances the effect of fitness training.
The ability to support your performance through sufficient quantities, quality, and proportion of foods is called nutritional fitness. Food powers performance and the right fuel can aid you to perform at your best. A good diet is healthy, nutritious, and sustainable.
Fitness foods have a positive effect on the physiological changes exercise causes.
Roles of Good nutrition in fitness training;
Water Replenishment Water is the major component of the body. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory process, energy metabolism, waste products elimination, body temperature, and plasma volume sustainability. Workouts increase your body temperature. There is a loss of a large amount of water and electrolytes through sweat. Loss of body fluid impairs thermoregulation and circulatory system, thus jeopardizing your performance. Therefore, it is essential to take an isotonic fluid that has electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, to maintain homeostasis and athletic performance.
Endurance Enhancement Endurance exercise causes glycogen depletion, making it hard to continue the workout. Carbohydrates and lipids supply the energy required for training. It is vital to take carbohydrate diets than supplements.
Muscle Strength Improvement It is crucial to increase muscle bulk to improve muscle strength. Muscle tissue comprises mainly proteins ( actin and myosin) and water. Increased protein intake can promote protein synthesis or inhibit its depletion, thus building muscular strength and bulkiness.
CONCLUSION Physical fitness training works best with good nutrition. Exercise prescription requires exercise testing, especially for sedentary individuals.
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